íLate Republicí

123 First tribunate of Gaius Gracchus

122 Second tribunate of Gaius Gracchus

121 Civil disorder in Rome. Gaius Gracchus killed. Many followers of the Gracchi are executed. Defeat of the Arverni and Allobroges. Gallia Narbonensis becomes a Roman province.

119 Marius tribune. Abolition of the Gracchan land commission.

116 Senatorial commission despatched to Numidia to mediate on succession.

113-101 Cimbri and Teutones invade Roman territories

113 Cn. Carbo defeated at Noreia by the Cimbri

112-106 Jughurtine War

112 Jugurtha sacks Cirta. War declared on Jughurta.

110 War in Africa.

109 Metellus gains some successes against Jughurta

107 Marius elected consul, succeeds Metellus for command in Africa and captures Capsa. Cassius defeated by Tigurini in Gaul.

106 Birth of Cicero and Pompey. Marius advances into western Numidia. Bocchus of Mauretania surrenders Jughurta to Sulla.

105 Cimbri and Teutones destroy Roman armies at Arausio.

104-100 Second Sicilian slave war.

104 Marius consul second time, reorganizes Roman army.

103 Marius consul third time. Land allotments for Marius' veterans. Marius trains army in Gaul.

102 Marius consul fourth time, defeats Teutones near Aquae Sextiae (Aix-en-Provence). M. Antonius sent to Cilicia to deal with pirates.

101 Marius consul fifth time. Marius and Catullus defeat Cimbri at Vercellae (Vercelli).

100 Marius consul sixth time. Rioting in Rome. Marius restores order. Birth of Julius Caesar.

98 Marius leaves Rome for Asia. Revolt in Lusitania

96 Ptolemy Aion bequeaths Cyrene to Rome by testament

95 Mithridates ordered out of Paphlagonia and Cappadocia.

91-89 Social War between Rome and its Italian allies

90 Roman setbacks in Social War. Lex Julia: Latins, Etruscans, and Umbrians remaining loyal to Rome are given Roman citizenship.

89-85 Fisrt Mithridatic War. - War with Mithridates VI of Pontus over his territorial ambitions.

89 Victories of Strabo and Sulla. Lex Plautia Papiria: Roman citizenship conceded to all allies south of the Po.

88 Proposal to transfer command in Asia from Sulla to Marius by tribune Sulpicius Rufus. Sulla seizes Rome. Mithridates overruns Asia Minor.

87 Cinna and Marius in control of Rome, massacre Sulla's supporters. Sulla lands in Greece and besieges Athens.

87-84 Consulships of Cinna

86 Marius consul seventh time, dies. Sulla conquers Athens, defeat Mithridates armies at Chaeronea and Orchomenus.

85 Treaty of Dardanus with Mithridates.

84 Cinna killed. Carbo sole consul.

83-82 Second Mithridatic War

83 Sulla lands in Italy. Murena begins Second Mithridatic War

82 Civil War in Italy. Sulla victorious. Proscribtions in Rome. Sertorius leaves for Spain. Pompeu crushes Sulla's opponents in Sicily.

81 Sulla dictator. Constiturional reforms. Pompey defeats Marians in Africa. Sertorius driven out of Spain.

80 Sertorius lands in Spain again.

79 Sulla resigns dictatorship. Sertorius defeats Metellus Pius

78 Death of Sulla. P.Servilis starts three year campaign against pirates

77 Pompey oppointed against Sertorius

76 Sertorius victorious against Metellus and Pompey

75/74 Death of Nicomededs who bequeaths Bithynia to Rome

74-64 Third Mithradatic War

74 Cyrene made Roman province. M. Antonius given commmand against the pirates. Mithridates invades Bithynia; Lucullus sent against him.

73-71 Third Slave War

73 Rising of Spartacus at Capua. Lucullus relievesCyzicus, defeats Mithridates.

72 Successes of Spartacus. Assassination of Sertorius. Pompey victorious in Spain. Lucullus campaigns against Mithridates in Pontus. M.Antonius defeated by pirates of Crete.

71 Crassus defeats Spartacus. Lucullus defeats Mithridates, who flees to king Tigranes of Armenia.

70 First consulship of P{ompey and Crassus. Restoriation of tribunician powers (suppressed by Sulla). Birth of Virgil

69 Lucullus invades Armenia, captures its capital Tigranocerta

68 Mithridates returns to Pontus. Discontent in Lucullus army.

67Pompey handed command against pirates. Pompey clears pirates from the Mediterranean.

66 Pompey given command against Mithridates, who is finally defeated. Pompey campaigns in Caucasus. Birth of Horace.

64 Pompey annexes Syria

63 Cicero consul. Caesar elected pontifex maximus. Seizure of Jerusalem by Pompey. Cataline Conspiracy. Death of Mithridates. Birth of Octavian.

62 Defeat and death of Catalina. Pompey settles matters in the east, returns to Italy and disbands his army.

61 Caesar governor of Further Spain. Revolt of the Allobroges. Aedui appeal to Rome.

60 Caesar returns from Spain, first triumvirate between Casesar, Crassus and Pompey.

59 Caesar consul. Pompey marries Caesar's daughter Julia. Caesar given proconsulship of Cisalpine Gaul and Illyricum; senate adds Transalpine Gaul to this.

58-51 Caesar's campaigns in Gaul

58 Tribunate of Clodius - corn law. Cicero exiled. Cyprus annexed. Caesar defeats Helvetii and Ariovistos

57 Clodius and Milo riot in Rome. Return of Cicero. Caesar defeats Nervii and other Belgae

56 Conference of the triumvirs at Luca.

55 Second consulship of Crassus and Pompey. First stone theatre of Rome, built by Pompey on the Campus Martius. Caesar bridges the Rhine, invades Germany, then Britain.

54 Pompey, near Rome, governs Spain through legates. Death of Julia. Caesar's second expedition to Britain. revolt in north eastern Gaul. Crassus prepares for Parthian campaign.

53 Rioting in Rome. Battle of Carrhae: Roman army defeated by the Parthians, Crassus killed, the Roman army standards taken as booty

52 Milo kills Clodius. Trial of Milo. Pompey sole consul. Revolt of Vercingetorix in Gaul. Siege of Alesia, Caesar victorious.

51 Parthian invasion of Syria

49-45 Civil War - Julius Caesar fighting the Pompeians

49 On January 10 Caesar crosses the Rubicon and marches on Rome in defiance of the Senate. Pompey leaves for Greece. Caesar dictator fir first time, for eleven days, passes emergency legislation. Caesar in Spain, defeats Pompeians.

48-47 Caesar becomes involved in Egyptian dynastic struggles

48 Caesar consul for second time.Caesar crosses to Greece, defeats Pompey at Pharsalus. Pompey flees to Egypt where he is stabbed to death on landing. Caesar in Egypt. Alexandrine War. Caesar makes Cleopatra queen of Egypt.

47 Caesar dictator for second time in his absence. Caesar defeats King Pharnaces II of Pontus. Caesar returns to Rome, then leaves for Africa.

46 Caesar crushes surviving Pompeian forces under Scipio and Cato at Thapsus. Caesar dictator second time, consul third time. Cato commits suicide. Caesar returns to Rome, reforms calendar. Caesar leaves for Spain.

45 Caesar dictator third time, consul fourth time. In battle at Munda in Spain the last Roman Republican resistance is crushed

44 Caesar dictator fourth time (for life), consul fifth time. March 15, Caesar murdered by Brutus, Cassius, and their co-conspirators acting for the Republicans. Octavian returns from Greece.

43 Second Triumvirate: Anthony, Octavian, Lepidus. Proscriptions. Cicero is murdered

42 Julius Caesar deified. Sextus Pompeius controls Sicily. Battle of Philippi: the Triumvirate defeat Brutus and Cassius, both of whom take their own lives

41 Antony visits Asia Minor, then Alexandria.

40 Agreement at Brunidisum divides the Roman empire. Antony marries Octavia. Parthian invasion of Syria.

39 Agreement at misenum between Antony, Octavian and Sextus Pompeius. Parthian defeated at Mt Amanus.

38 Naval successes of Sextus Pompeius. Defeat of Parthians at Gindarus. Antony captures Samosata.

37 Pact of Tarentum; triumvirate renewed. Antony marries Cleopatra at Antioch.

36 Octavian granted tribunician immunity. Sextus Pompeius defeated at Naulochus. Lepidus ceases to be triumvir. Antony retreats through Armenia.

35 Octavian in Illyria. Death of Sextus Pompeius.

34 Antony celebrates triumph in Alexandria

33 Octavian consul for second time. Antony in Armenia. Antony and Cleapatra winter at Ephesus.

32 Octavia divorced by Antony. Octavian publishes Antony's will in Rome. Antony and Cleopatra in Greece.

31 Octavian consul third time. (and hereon successivly until 23 BC). September 2, Octavian defeats Antony in naval battle off Actium

30 Tribunician powers granted to Octavian. In August, Antony and Cleopatra commit suicide in Alexandria

29 Octavian celebrates his Triumph in Rome, the doors of Temple of Janus are closed, the war officially ended, many legions disbanded, and land distributed to veterans. Dedication of Temple of Divus Julius.

28 The Senate, its numbers already somewhat reduced by Octavian, grants him the title of Princeps Senatus. Census held by Octavian and Agrippa. Mausoleum of Augustus begun.

27 January 13, Octavian makes the gesture of returning command of the state to the Senate and the people of Rome, receiving in return vast provinces and most of the army as his own. Three days later the Senate confers on him great powers, numerous honors, and the title of Augustus

27-25 Augustus directs the final subjugation of Spain and the administrative reorganization of Spain and Gaul

23 The Senate grants Augustus the titles and powers of Imperium proconsulare maius and tribunicia potestas for life, thereby turning over to him complete control of the State and ending the Roman Republic