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The Roman Empire
at its largest extent - AD 116

Mesopotamia

Mesopotamia was conquered in AD 116 by emperor Trajan on his Parthian campaign. Victory over the Parthians was so complete that the new province even included the city of Charax on the eastern shore of the Euphrates in the very south-east of the province. However, revolts in the provinces in his rear soon created serious trouble for these campaigns and forced Trajan to retreat surrendering the southern parts of Mesopotamia as early as AD 116/117.
At Trajan's death in AD 117 the new emperor Hadrian immediately decided to withdraw completely from this new province.