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The Roman Empire
at its largest extent - AD 116

Judaea

The relationship with Judaea and Rome begins as early as when the two became allies. But in 63 BC Pompey at teh head of a Roman army in Syria, was asked to intervene in a civil war in Judaea and did so, besieged Jerusalem, took it and installed Hyrcanus as king.
From then on, Judaea was a protectorate of Rome; it enjoyed its own rule, though fell under the military influence of he empire.
Alas, in AD 6 emperor Augustus deposed king Archelaus and annexed Judaea as a province into the empire.