'Constantinople'
Chronology

326 Constantine chooses Byzantium as the new capital of the Empire and renames it Constantinopolis

395 Death of Theodosius. Permanent split of the empire. Arcadius succeeds to emperor in the east. Honorius emperor of the west.

396 Alaric the Visigoth overruns Balkan peninsula.

408 Arcadius dies, Theodosius II, aged 7, succeeds him.

434 Rugila, King of the Huns, dies. Attila succeds him.

441 Attila crosses Danube and invades Thrace

443 Attila makes terms with Theodosius II

447 Attila's second invasion.

449 Attila's second peace.

450 Theodosius II dies. Marcian succeeds and stops subsidy to Attila.

453 Attila dies. Theodori II king of the Visigoths

454 Overthrow of the Hun power by the subjected barbarians

456 Aspar the Alan is 'power behind the throne' in the east

457 Marcian dies. Aspar the Alan makes Leo emperor

465 Fall of Aspar the Alan

467 Leo appoints Anthemius western Augustus

468 Leo sends great neaval expedition under Basiliscus to crush Geiseric, who destroys it

474 Leo dies, succeeded by infant Leo II. Leo II dies. Zeno the Isaurian acceeds to the throne.

475 Usurpation of Basiliscus. Zeno escapes to Asia.

476 Odoacer conquers Rome and offers to rule as viceroy of the eastern Augustus. End of western empire.

477 Fall of Basiliscus. Restoration of Zeno

478-482 War of Zeno with Ostrogoths, under Kign Theodoric the Amal and Theodoric Strabo

483 Tehodoric recognized as master of the soldiers

484 Revolt of Leontius in Syria

489 Theodoric invades Italy to supplant Odoacer

491 Odoacer, defeated, holds out at Ravenna. Anastasius succeeds Zeno

493 Odoacer capitulates and is murdered. Theodoric King of Italy, nominally viceroy

502 Persian war of Anastasius

518 Justin succeeds Anastasius to the throne

526 Theodoric dies, succeeded by Athalaric.

527 Accession and marriage of Justinian

529 Justinian's code

530 Persian incursions Victory of Belisarius at Daras.

532 Nika Riots, suppressed by Belisarius. Peace with Parthia

533 Belisarius oblitarates the Vandal Kingdom

534 Justinian's revised Code. Athalaric dies, succeeded by Theodahad

535 Belisarius in Sicily

536 Theodahad deposed and killed. Wittiges elected. Belisarius captures and holds Rome.

537 Wittiges besieges Rome, Franks invade northern Italy.

538 Wittiges buys of Franks by ceding to them the Roman Provence

539 Belasarius besieges Wittiges at Ravenna.

540 Fall of Ravenna. Belisarius leaves Italy

541 Chosroes invades Syria and sacks Antioch. Goths, led by Totila, begin reconquest of Italy.

542 General paralysis caused by the great plague

544 Belisarius sent to Italy with feeble force

545 Five years truce with Persia

546 Totila captures and evacuates Rome

547 Belisarius reoccupies Rome

548 Belisarius recalled. Totila dominates Italy

550 Justinian's troops occupy Andalusia. Third Persian War.

552 Narses sent to recover Italy. Fall of Totila at Battle of Taginae.
Introduction of silk-worm from China.

553Last stand and annihilation of the Ostrogoths

554 Narses shattes a Frank invasion

555 narses rules Italy from Ravenna

561 End of Persian war

565 Deaths of Justinian and Belisarius. Justin II emperor.

566 Avars and Lombards on the Danube

568 Lombards under Alboin invade Italy

569 Birth of Mohammed

572 Persian war renewd

573 Lombards masters of northern Italy and of provinces in the south, though without a king.

578 Tiberius succeeds Justin II

582 Maurice succeeds Tiberius

584 Authari elected Lombard King

590 Gregory the Great pope. Agilulf Lombard King.

591 Accession of Chosroes II in Persia by help of Maurice. End of Persian war.

595 Wars of Maurice with Avars and others on the Danube

602 Mutiny and usurpation of Phocas, Maurice killed.

604 Death of Greagory the Great

606 Chosroes II invades Syria as avenger of Maurice. Continuous expansion of Persian power.

609 Revolt of Heraclius the elder in Africa

610 Phocas is overthrown by the Heraclius the younger. Heraclius emperor.

614 Chosroes II completes conquest of Syria by taking Jerusalem, carrying off the true cross

616 Persian conquest of Egypt

620 Persian overrun Asia Minor

621 The eastern empire devotes itself to a holy war against Parthia

622 First Persian campaign of Heraclius who splits Parthian forces of Syria and Asia Minor

623-627 Victorious campaigns of Heraclius in and beyond Mesopotamia

626 Persians and Avars besieging Constantinople are completely repulsed

627 Decisive victory of Heraclius at Nineveh. Mohammed's letter to Heraclius

628 Fall of Chosroes II. End of Persian War, all Roman possessions restored

632 Death of Mohammed. Abu Bekr First Khalif. First Syrian Expedition.

634 Roman defeat on Yermak

635 Fall of Damascus

636 Fall of Antioch. Heraclius evacuates Syria.

637 Fall of Jerusalem.

640 Amru invades Egypt

641 Heraclius dies. Constans II emperor. Amru takes Alexandria

642 Persian Empire ended at battle of Nehavend

646 Alexandira recovered and lost again.

649 Beginning of the Saracen fleet in the Mediterranean.

651 Moawiya begins invasion of Asia Minor

652 Naval victory of Abu Sarh off Alexandria

655 Naval victory of Constans II at Phoenix

658 Constans II campaigns against Slavs

659 Truce between Moawiya and Constans II

662 Constans II invades Italy

663 Constans II retires from Italy to Syracuss

664Constans II organizes campaigns in Africa

668 Constans II killed. Constantine Pogonatus emperor. Renewal of the war with Moawiya. Saracen successes in Asia Minor

673 Second siege of Constantinople. Saracens repulsed

673-677 Defeats of Saracens by Constantine

678 Moawiya forced to make peace with Constantine

681 Council of Constantinople condemns Monothelite heresy. Rome reconciled.

685 Constantine dies. Justinian II emperor.

691 Justinian II's successful campaign in Bulgaria

693 Justinian II's campaign in Cilicia

695 Justinian II deposed and exiled. Leontius emperor.

698 Saracens cinally capture Carthage. Leontius deposed Tiberius III emperor.

705 return and resoriation of Justinian II. Reign of terror to 711.

711 Philippicus kills Justinian II and usurps crown. Saracen fleet takes possession of Sardinia.

711-715 Saracens overrun Asia Minor

713 Fall of Philippicus. Anastasius II emperor.

715 Fall of Anastasius II. Theodosius III emperor.

716 Suleiman prepares grant attack on the empire. Revolt of Leo the Isaurian.

717 Theodosius III abdicates in favour of Leo III. Moslemah besieges Constantinople by sea and land. Leo III defeats fleet.

718 Saracens reinforced. Leo III shatters their fleet, crosses the Bosporus and cuts them off from the east. Bulgarians advance and defeat a Saracen army. Moslemah withdraws. Remnants of Saracen grand fleet destroyed in a storm.

719 Campaigns to expel Saracens from Asia Minor.

726 Leo III prohibits image worship, though cannot enforce edict in Italy. Violent breach with pope Gregory II.

727 Saracen defeat at Nicaea drives them from Asia Minor.

729 Exarch Eutychius marches on Rome.

730 Liutprand imposes pacification of Italy

732 Leo III's fleet for subjugation of Italy destroyed by storms.

741 Emperor Leo III succeeded by Constantine V Copronymus

753 Iconoclast Council of Constantinople

755 First Bulgar War of Consantine V

761 Constantine begins persecution of the monks

764 Second Bulgar War of Constantine

775 Leo IV succeeds Constantine V

780 Constantine VI succeeds Leo IV. Iconodule reaction under regency of Irene

784 Saracens extort tribute from Irene

786 Haround al-Raschid khalif

790 Constanine VI seizes control by coup d'état.

797 Irene deposes and blinds Constantine VI

802 Irene deposed. Nicephorus emperor.

811 Nicephorus killed on Bulgar campaign.

812 Accession of Michael. Recognition of the western Holy Roman Empire.

813 Michael deposed by Leo V the Armenian

820 Leo V assassinated. Accession of Michael II

827 Saracens of Tunis invade Sicily and begin its conquest.

829 Theophilus succeeds Michael II

831 Mamun invades Cappadocia. Beginning of prolonged was between empire and khalifate.

842 Saracens in Sicily capture Messina. Michael III the Drunkard, aged four, succeeds Theophilus. Fourteen year Regency of Theodora.

855 Michael III takes control of Constantinople

857 Michael III deposes Ignatius and makes Photius patriarch, denounced by pope Benedict III.

859 Fall of Enna completes Saracen conquest of Sicily

861 Conversion of Bulgars to Christianity

863 Pope Nicholas I excommunicates Patricarch Photius.

866 Synod at Constantinople condemns hereies of the Latin church. Permanent severance of the Latin and Greek churches.

867 Murder of Michael III. Basil the Macedonian first emperor of the Macedonian dynasty.

876 Basil takes up Saracen war in South Italy

878 Saracens take Syracuse, completing conquest of Italy

886 Leo VI the Wise succeeds Basil

912 Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus succeeds Leo VI

919 Romanus co-emperor with the boy Constantine VII

945 Romanus deposed. Constantine VII sole emperor

959 Constantine VII dies. Romanus II emperor.

961 Crete recovered from the Saracens for the empire. Syrian campaign.

963 Romanus II dies. Nicephorus Phocas emperor, with the children Basil II and Cosntantine VIII

965 Nicephorus recovers Cyprus from Saracens

968 Nicephorus recovers Antioch

969 John Zimisces murders Nicephorus II and becomes co-emperor. Russians under Sviatoslav invade Bulgaria and Thrace.

971 Zimisces defeats Russians. Russian treaty.

975 Syrian campaign of John Zimisces

976 Zimisces dies. Basil II reigns until 1025.

1014 Basil II destroys the Bulgar army

1017 Norman adventurers in Italy take part against the Byzantines in the south.

1018 End of the first Bulgar kingdom

1022 Armenian campaigns of Basil II

1025 Basil II dies. Constantine VIII sole emperor

1028 Constantine VIII dies. Zoe with Romanus II succeeds

1034 Romanus III dies. Zoe with Michael VI

1042 Michael IV dies. Zoe with Constantine IX

1054 Theodora empress at Cosntantinople

1057 Isaac Comnenus emperor

1059 Isaac Comnenus retire. Constantine X Ducas emperor.

1067 Romanus IV co-emperor with Michael VII

1071 Romanus IV defeated at Manzikert by Alp Arslan

1073 Sulayman takes Nicaea

1076 Seljuk Turks seize Jerusalem.

1077 Sultanate of Roum established at Nicaea

1078 Nicephorus II deposes Michael VII Ducas

1081 Alexius Comnenus deposes Nicephorus II Robert Guiscard besieges Durazzo and defeats Byzantines

1095 Alexius appeals to Urban II at Council of Piacenza. The First Crusade proclaimed at Council of Clermont.

1096 Crusade assemble at Constantinople

1097 Crusaders invade Asia Minor, take Nicaea, cross the Taurus, secure Edessa, besiege Antioch

1098 Crusaders take Antioch. Fatimids recapture Jerusalem from the Seljuk Turks.

1099 Crusaders capture Jerusalem. Beginning of the Latin Kingdom.

1119 John II succeeds Alexius

1143 Manuel succeeds John II

1146 Second Crusade

1148 Collapse of the Second Crusade

1180 Death of Manuel. Succession of Alexius II Comnenus

1183 Usupration of Andronicus Comnenus

1185 Andronicus killed. Isaac Angelus emperor.

1187 Saladin captures Jerusalem

1189 Third Crusade

1192 Treaty of Richard and Saladin ends Third Crusade

1195 Alexius Angelus deposes Isaac.

1202 Fourth Crusade assembles at Venice, diverted at Constantinople

1203 First capture of Constantinople. Isaac 'restored'.

1204 Second capture and sack of Constantinople. Crusaders divide the spoils, Venice taking the lion's share. Baldwin of Flanders emperor

1205 Baldwin killed in Bulgarian war. Henry of Flanders succeeds.

1206 Theodore Lascaris Greek emperor at Nicaea

1216 Death of Henry of Flanders. Accession of Peter of Courtenay

1222 John III Ducas emperor at Nicaea

1229 John of Brienne joint emperor with Baldwin II of Courtenay at Constantinople

1237 Advance of John III Ducas in Thrace. Death of John of Brienne

1246 John III Ducas takes Thessalonica

1254 Death of John III Ducas.

1259 Usurpation of the crown by Michael VIII

1261 Michael VIII captures Constantinople, restoring Greek and ending Latin empire.

1282 Andronicus II succeeds Michael VII

1288 Ottoman Turks in Asia Minor under Othman

1303 Andronicus II takes into his service Grand Company of Catalans

1328 Death of Andronicus II. Accession of Andronicus III

1341 Andronicus II dies, succeeded by John V

1347 John Cantacuzenus joint emperor

1354 Cantacuzenus abdicates. John V sole emperor. Turks occupy Gallipoli

1361 Turks capture Adrianople

1391 Accession of Manuel II

1425 Manuel II dies. Accession of John VI

1148 John VI dies. Accession of Constantine XI

1451 Accession of Mohammed the Conqueror in the east

1453 Fall of Constantinople to Mohammed the Conqueror. Death of Constantine XI.